Brooklyn Museum. Qajar era currency bill with depiction of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar. A map showing the 19th-century northwestern borders of Iran, comprising modern-day eastern Georgia , Dagestan , Armenia , and the Republic of Azerbaijan , before being ceded to the neighboring Russian Empire by the Russo-Iranian wars. Agha Mohammad Khan emerged victorious out of the civil war that commenced with the death of the last Zand king. His reign is noted for the reemergence of a centrally led and united Iran.
After the death of Nader Shah and the last of the Zands, most of Iran's Caucasian territories had broken away into various Caucasian khanates. Agha Mohammad Khan, like the Safavid kings and Nader Shah before him, viewed the region as no different than the territories in mainland Iran.
Therefore, his first objective after having secured mainland Iran, was to reincorpate the Caucasus region into Iran. Agha Mohammad Khan subsequently demanded that Heraclius II renounce its treaty with Russia , and to submit again to Persian suzerainty,  in return for peace and the security of his kingdom.
The Ottomans, Iran's neighboring rival, recognized the latter's rights over Kartli and Kakheti for the first time in four centuries. Having reached Georgia with his large army, he prevailed in the Battle of Krtsanisi , which resulted in the capture and sack of Tbilisi , as well as the effective resubjugation of Georgia. Agha Mohammad Shah was later assassinated while preparing a second expedition against Georgia in in Shusha  now part of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the seasoned king Heraclius died early in The reassertion of Iranian hegemony over Georgia did not last long; in the Russians marched into Tbilisi.
The next two years following Russia's entrance into Tbilisi were a time of confusion, and the weakened and devastated Georgian kingdom, with its capital half in ruins, was easily absorbed by Russia in The outcome of these two wars in the Treaty of Gulistan and the Treaty of Turkmenchay , respectively proved for the irrevocable forced cession and loss of what is now eastern Georgia , Dagestan , Armenia , and Azerbaijan to Imperial Russia. The area to the north of the river Aras , among which the territory of the contemporary republic of Azerbaijan, eastern Georgia, Dagestan, and Armenia were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century.
Painting showing the Battle of Sultanabad , 13 February State Hermitage Museum. Storming of Lankaran , Painted by Franz Roubaud. Battle of Elisabethpol Ganja , Franz Roubaud. Part of the collection of the Museum for History, Baku. Following the official loss of vast territories in the Caucasus, major demographic shifts were bound to take place. Solidly Persian-speaking territories of Iran were lost, with all their inhabitants.
Following the War, but also per the war which ceded the last territories, large migrations, so-called Caucasian Muhajirs , set off to migrate to mainland Iran. During the remaining part of the war, as well as through the war , a large number of the Ayrums and Qarapapaqs that were still remaining in newly conquered Russian territories were settled in and migrated to Solduz in modern-day Iran's West Azerbaijan province. In until the early 20th century, another mass expulsion took place of Caucasian Muslims as a result of the Russian victory in the Caucasian War.
Others simply voluntarily refused to live under Christian Russian rule, and thus departed for Turkey or Iran. Furthermore, the Treaty of Turkmenchay included the official rights for the Russian Empire to encourage settling of Armenians from Iran in the newly conquered Russian territories. Following Shah Abbas I 's massive relocation of Armenians and Muslims in ,  their numbers dwindled even further. As a result, by , the number of ethnic Armenians had matched that of the Muslims. Fath Ali Shah's reign saw increased diplomatic contacts with the West and the beginning of intense European diplomatic rivalries over Iran.
His grandson Mohammad Shah , who succeeded him in , fell under the Russian influence and made two unsuccessful attempts to capture Herat. When Mohammad Shah died in the succession passed to his son Nasser-e-Din, who proved to be the ablest and most successful of the Qajar sovereigns.
He founded the first modern hospital in Iran. The Great Persian Famine of — is believed to have caused the death of two million people. A new era in the history of Persia dawned with the Persian Constitutional Revolution against the Shah in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Shah managed to remain in power, granting a limited constitution in making the country a constitutional monarchy.
The first Majlis parliament was convened on October 7, Control of Persia remained contested between the United Kingdom and Russia, in what became known as The Great Game , and codified in the Anglo-Russian Convention of , which divided Persia into spheres of influence, regardless of her national sovereignty. In , after the Russian revolution and their withdrawal, Britain attempted to establish a protectorate in Persia, which was unsuccessful. Finally, the Constitutionalist movement of Gilan and the central power vacuum caused by the instability of the Qajar government resulted in the rise of Reza Khan, who was later to become Reza Shah Pahlavi , and the subsequent establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty in In , a military coup established Reza Khan, an officer of the Persian Cossack Brigade , as the dominant figure for the next 20 years.
Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabai was also a leader and important figure in the perpetration of the coup. Reza Shah ruled for almost 16 years until September 16, , when he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He established an authoritarian government that valued nationalism , militarism , secularism and anti-communism combined with strict censorship and state propaganda. To his supporters his reign brought "law and order, discipline, central authority, and modern amenities — schools, trains, buses, radios, cinemas, and telephones".
Many of the new laws and regulations created resentment among devout Muslims and the clergy. For example, mosques were required to use chairs; most men were required to wear western clothing, including a hat with a brim; women were encouraged to discard the hijab ; men and women were allowed to freely congregate, violating Islamic mixing of the sexes. Tensions boiled over in , when bazaaris and villagers rose up in rebellion at the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad , chanting slogans such as 'The Shah is a new Yezid.
German interests held great influence within Iran in , with the Germans staging a coup [ citation needed ] in an attempt to overthrow the Pahlavi dynasty. With German armies highly successful against Russia, the Iranian government expected Germany to win the war and establish a powerful force on its borders. It rejected British and Russian demands to expel the Germans.
In response the Allies invaded in August , and easily overwhelmed the weak Iranian army in Operation Countenance. The purpose was to secure Iranian oil fields and ensure Allied supply lines see Persian Corridor. Iran remained officially neutral. At the Tehran Conference of , the Allies issued the Tehran Declaration guaranteed the post-war independence and boundaries of Iran. However, when the war actually ended, Soviet troops stationed in northwestern Iran not only refused to withdraw but backed revolts that established short-lived, pro-Soviet separatist national states in the northern regions of Azerbaijan and Iranian Kurdistan , the Azerbaijan People's Government and the Republic of Kurdistan respectively, in late Soviet troops did not withdraw from Iran proper until May after receiving a promise of oil concessions.
The Soviet republics in the north were soon overthrown and the oil concessions were revoked. Initially there were hopes that post-occupation Iran could become a constitutional monarchy. The new, young Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi initially took a very hands-off role in government, and allowed parliament to hold a lot of power. Some elections were held in the first shaky years, although they remained mired in corruption.
Parliament became chronically unstable, and from the to period Iran saw the rise and fall of six different prime ministers. Pahlavi increased his political power by convening the Iran Constituent Assembly, , which finally formed the Senate of Iran —a legislative upper house allowed for in the constitution but never brought into being. The new senators were largely supportive of Pahlavi, as he had intended. In Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq received the vote required from the parliament to nationalize the British-owned oil industry, in a situation known as the Abadan Crisis.
Despite British pressure, including an economic blockade, the nationalization continued. Mosaddeq was briefly removed from power in but was quickly re-appointed by the shah, due to a popular uprising in support of the premier and he, in turn, forced the Shah into a brief exile in August after a failed military coup by Imperial Guard Colonel Nematollah Nassiri. Mosaddeq was arrested and tried for treason. Found guilty, his sentence reduced to house arrest on his family estate while his foreign minister, Hossein Fatemi , was executed.
Zahedi succeeded him as prime minister, and suppressed opposition to the Shah, specifically the National Front and Communist Tudeh Party. Iran was ruled as an autocracy under the shah with American support from that time until the revolution. The Iranian government entered into agreement with an international consortium of foreign companies which ran the Iranian oil facilities for the next 25 years splitting profits fifty-fifty with Iran but not allowing Iran to audit their accounts or have members on their board of directors.
In martial law was ended after 16 years and Iran became closer to the West, joining the Baghdad Pact and receiving military and economic aid from the US. In , Iran initiated a series of economic, social, agrarian and administrative reforms to modernize the country that became known as the Shah's White Revolution. The core of this program was land reform.
Modernization and economic growth proceeded at an unprecedented rate, fueled by Iran's vast petroleum reserves, the third-largest in the world. However the reforms, including the White Revolution , did not greatly improve economic conditions and the liberal pro-Western policies alienated certain Islamic religious and political groups. In early June several days of massive rioting occurred in support of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini following the cleric's arrest for a speech attacking the shah. In the s leftist guerilla groups such as Mujaheddin-e-Khalq MEK , emerged and attacked regime and foreign targets.
Nearly a hundred Iran political prisoners were killed by the SAVAK during the decade before the revolution and many more were arrested and tortured. Iran greatly increased its defense budget and by the early s was the region's strongest military power. Bilateral relations with its neighbor Iraq were not good, mainly due to a dispute over the Shatt al-Arab waterway. In November , Iranian forces seized control of three islands at the mouth of the Persian Gulf; in response, Iraq expelled thousands of Iranian nationals.
Following a number of clashes in April , Iran abrogated the accord and demanded a renegotiation. In mid, the Shah returned the oil industry to national control. Instead, it used the situation to raise oil prices, using the money gained for modernization and to increase defense spending. A border dispute between Iraq and Iran was resolved with the signing of the Algiers Accord on March 6, The Iranian Revolution , also known as the Islamic Revolution ,  was the revolution that transformed Iran from an absolute monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi , to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini , one of the leaders of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic.
In between, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi left the country for exile in January after strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country, and on February 1, Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Tehran. Iran officially became an Islamic Republic on April 1, , when Iranians overwhelmingly approved a national referendum to make it so.
The ideology of revolutionary government was populist, nationalist and most of all Shi'a Islamic. Its unique constitution is based on the concept of velayat-e faqih the idea advanced by Khomeini that Muslims — in fact everyone — requires "guardianship", in the form of rule or supervision by the leading Islamic jurist or jurists. Iran's rapidly modernising, capitalist economy was replaced by populist and Islamic economic and cultural policies. Much industry was nationalized , laws and schools Islamicized, and Western influences banned.
The Islamic revolution also created great impact around the world. In the non-Muslim world it has changed the image of Islam, generating much interest in the politics and spirituality of Islam,  along with "fear and distrust towards Islam" and particularly the Islamic Republic and its founder. Khomeini served as leader of the revolution or as Supreme Leader of Iran from to his death on June 3, This era was dominated by the consolidation of the revolution into a theocratic republic under Khomeini, and by the costly and bloody war with Iraq.
The consolidation lasted until —3,   as Iran coped with the damage to its economy, military, and apparatus of government, and protests and uprisings by secularists, leftists, and more traditional Muslims—formerly ally revolutionaries but now rivals—were effectively suppressed. Many political opponents were executed by the new regimes. Following the events of the revolution, Marxist guerrillas and federalist parties revolted in some regions comprising Khuzistan , Kurdistan and Gonbad-e Qabus , which resulted in severe fighting between rebels and revolutionary forces.
These revolts began in April and lasted between several months to over a year, depending on the region. The Kurdish uprising , led by the KDPI, was the most violent, lasting until and resulting in 10, casualties. In the summer of a new constitution giving Khomeini a powerful post as guardian jurist Supreme Leader  and a clerical Council of Guardians power over legislation and elections, was drawn up by an Assembly of Experts for Constitution.
The new constitution was approved by referendum in December An early event in the history of the Islamic republic that had a long-term impact was the Iran hostage crisis. Following the admitting of the former Shah of Iran into the United States for cancer treatment, on November 4, , Iranian students seized US embassy personnel , labeling the embassy a "den of spies. The takeover was enormously popular in Iran, where thousands gathered in support of the hostage takers, and it is thought to have strengthened the prestige of the Ayatollah Khomeini and consolidated the hold of anti-Americanism.
It was at this time that Khomeini began referring to America as the " Great Satan. Relations between the two countries have remained deeply antagonistic and American international sanctions have hurt Iran's economy. During this political and social crisis, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein attempted to take advantage of the disorder of the Revolution, the weakness of the Iranian military and the revolution's antagonism with Western governments. The once-strong Iranian military had been disbanded during the revolution, and with the Shah ousted, Hussein had ambitions to position himself as the new strong man of the Middle East, and sought to expand Iraq's access to the Persian Gulf by acquiring territories that Iraq had claimed earlier from Iran during the Shah's rule.
Of chief importance to Iraq was Khuzestan which not only boasted a substantial Arab population, but rich oil fields as well. With these ambitions in mind, Hussein planned a full-scale assault on Iran, boasting that his forces could reach the capital within three days. The attack took revolutionary Iran completely by surprise. Although Saddam Hussein's forces made several early advances, Iranian forces had pushed the Iraqi army back into Iraq by Khomeini sought to export his Islamic revolution westward into Iraq, especially on the majority Shi'a Arabs living in the country.
The war then continued for six more years until , when Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. Tens of thousands of Iranian civilians and military personnel were killed when Iraq used chemical weapons in its warfare. There were more than , Iranian victims  of Iraq's chemical weapons during the eight-year war.
The total Iranian casualties of the war were estimated to be between , and 1,, Almost all relevant international agencies have confirmed that Saddam engaged in chemical warfare to blunt Iranian human wave attacks ; these agencies unanimously confirmed that Iran never used chemical weapons during the war. Starting on 19 July and lasting about five months the government systematically executed thousands of political prisoners across Iran. This is commonly referred to as the executions of Iranian political prisoners or the Iranian Massacre. On his deathbed in , Khomeini appointed a man Constitutional Reform Council which named then president Ali Khamenei as the next Supreme Leader, and made a number of changes to Iran's constitution.
While Khamenei lacked Khomeini's "charisma and clerical standing", he developed a network of supporters within Iran's armed forces and its economically powerful religious foundations. Succeeding Khamenei as president was pragmatic conservative Ali- Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani , who served two four-year terms and focused his efforts on rebuilding Iran's economy and war-damaged infrastructure though low oil prices hampered this endeavor. He sought to restore confidence in the government among the general population by privatizing the companies that had been nationalized in the first few years of the Islamic Republic, as well as by bringing in qualified technocrats to manage the economy.
The state of their economy also influenced the government to move towards ending their diplomatic isolation. This was achieved through the reestablishment of normalized relations with neighbors such as Saudi Arabia and an attempt to improve its reputation in the region with assertions that its revolution was not exportable to other states. Iran in the s had a greater secular behavior and admiration for Western popular culture than in the previous decades, it had become a way in which the urban population expressed their resentment at the invasive Islamic policies of the government.
Through this alliance they attempted to hinder the ulama 's ability to gain further control of the state. In , they created a sequence of constitutional amendments that removed the office of prime minister and increased the scope of presidential power. However, these new amendments did not curtail the powers of the Supreme Leader of Iran in any way; this position still contained the ultimate authority over the armed forces, the making of war and peace, the final say in foreign policy, and the right to intervene in the legislative process whenever he deemed it necessary.
President Rafsanjani's economic policies that led to greater relations with the outside world and his government's relaxation on the enforcement certain regulations on social behavior were met with some responses of widespread disenchantment among the general population with the ulama as rulers of the country. He was beaten by an independent candidate from the reformist , Mohammad Khatami.
The younger generations in the country had been too young to experience the shah's regime or the revolution that ended it, and now they resented the restrictions placed on their daily lives under the Islamic Republic. Mohammad Khatami's presidency was soon marked by tensions between the reform-minded government and an increasingly conservative and vocal clergy. This rift reached a climax in July when massive anti-government protests erupted in the streets of Tehran.
The disturbances lasted over a week before police and pro-government vigilantes dispersed the crowds. Khatami was re-elected in June but his efforts were repeatedly blocked by the conservatives in the parliament. Conservative elements within Iran's government moved to undermine the reformist movement, banning liberal newspapers and disqualifying candidates for parliamentary elections.
This clampdown on dissent, combined with the failure of Khatami to reform the government, led to growing political apathy among Iran's youth. In June , anti-government protests by several thousand students took place in Tehran. In Iranian presidential election , Mahmoud Ahmadinejad , mayor of Tehran, became the sixth president of Iran, after winning 62 percent of the vote in the run-off poll , against former president Ali- Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. During this time, the American invasion of Iraq , overthrow of Saddam Hussein 's regime and empowerment of its Shi'a majority, all strengthened Iran's position in the region particularly in the mainly Shi'a south of Iraq, where a top Shia leader in the week of September 3, renewed demands for an autonomous Shi'a region.
Defense Secretary William S. Cohen has stated that as of Iran's growing power has eclipsed anti-Zionism as the major foreign policy issue in the Middle East. During and , there were claims that the United States and Israel were planning to attack Iran, with the most cited reason being Iran's civilian nuclear energy program which the United States and some other states fear could lead to a nuclear weapons program.
China and Russia opposed military action of any sort and opposed economic sanctions. Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei issued a fatwa forbidding the production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons. In , Ahmadinejad's reelection was hotly disputed and marred by large protests that formed the "greatest domestic challenge" to the leadership of the Islamic Republic "in 30 years". The resulting social unrest is widely known as the Iranian Green Movement. On 15 June , Hassan Rouhani won the presidential election in Iran, with a total number of 36,, ballots cast; Rouhani won 18,, votes. In his press conference one day after election day, Rouhani reiterated his promise to recalibrate Iran's relations with the world.
On April 2, , following eight days of tortuous discussions in Switzerland, which lasted through the night to Thursday, Iran and six world powers United States, United Kingdom, France, China and Russia plus Germany agreed on the outlines of an understanding to limit Iran's nuclear programs, negotiators indicated, as both sides prepared for announcements. Ready to start drafting immediately.
She wrote: "Good news. Reading out a joint statement, European Union foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini hailed what she called a "decisive step" after more than a decade of work. Secretary of State John Kerry and the top diplomats of Britain, France and Germany also briefly took the stage behind them. The deal is intended to be a provisional framework for a comprehensive agreement and was signed in , and marked a significant breakthrough in the year history of negotiations with Iran over its nuclear programme.
When Donald Trump was campaigning to become President of the US , he repeatedly said he would abandon the Iran nuclear deal. After he was appointed president, the USA announced to withdraw from the agreement on the 8th of May From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. Mythological history. Pishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynasty. Ancient period. Imperial period. Medieval period. Early modern period. Safavid dynasty — Hotak dynasty — Afsharid dynasty — Talysh Khanate — Zand dynasty — Qajar Iran — Modern period.
Pahlavi dynasty — Interim Government Islamic Republic —present. Related articles. Further information: Archaeological sites in Iran and Prehistory of Iran. See also: Neo-Assyrian Empire and Urartu. Main articles: Medes and Achaemenid Empire.
See also: Greco-Persian Wars. The tomb of Cyrus the Great. Ruins of the Apadana , Persepolis. Ruins of the Tachara , Persepolis. Main article: Seleucid Empire. Main article: Parthian Empire. See also: Roman—Parthian Wars. Main article: Sasanian Empire.
Main article: Muslim conquest of Persia. Expansion under Muhammad, — Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, — Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, — Main article: Umayyad Caliphate.
Main article: Ilkhanate. Main article: Islam in Iran. Main article: Timurid Empire. Main article: Kara Koyunlu. Main article: Ak Koyunlu. Main article: Safavid Empire. Main articles: Afsharid dynasty and Zand dynasty. Main article: Pahlavi dynasty. Main article: Persian Cossack Brigade. Play media. Further information: Ideology of the Iranian Revolution. Main article: Iran hostage crisis. Main article: Iran—Iraq War.
Retrieved United Kingdom: Hachette. Brody; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. Infobase Publishing.
Guinness World Records. A History of the Global Economy. From to the Present. Cambridge University Press. Vigne, J. Peters and D. July 5, Retrieved 1 March Retrieved 21 June Encyclopedia Iranica. Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation. Retrieved 9 August The Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. October Kris Hirst. Archived from the original on UPenn Museum of Archaeology. Ancient Turkey. This paper is cited in the Journal of Eurasian Studies at page January International Journal of Kurdish Studies. The pre-Islamic Middle East. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Warfare in the Ancient World , Pen and Sword, 19 jan. Oxford University Press. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. Bury, p. Tel Aviv University. Section on The Arab Conquest of Iran and. Vol 4, Iranian Studies , vol. London : Routledge , Archived from the original on October 5, Retrieved August 26, IV, part One, ed.
Asimov and C. Encyclopedia of Islam. IX , pp. Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship Tbilisi: Ganatleba, p.
Firearms: a global history to illustrated ed. Chinggis Khan organized a unit of Chinese catapult specialists in , and these men formed part of the first Mongol army to invade Transoxania in This was not too early for true firearms, and it was nearly two centuries after catapult-thrown gunpowder bombs had been added to the Chinese arsenal. Chinese siege equipment saw action in Transoxania in and in the north Caucasus in — Brockhampton Press.
Though he was himself a Chinese, he learned his trade from his father, who had accompanied Genghis Khan on his invasion of Muslim Transoxania and Iran. Technology in world civilization: a thousand-year history reprint, illustrated ed. MIT Press. During the s, the Mongols invaded Iran with 'whole regiments' of Chinese engineers operating trebuchets catapults throwing gunpowder bombs.
Their progress was rapid and devastating until, after the sack of Baghdad in , they entered Syria. There they met an Islamic army similarly equipped and experienced their first defeat. In , the same sort of weapon was used during the siege of Acre, when the European Crusaders were expelled form Palestine. Volume 5 of History of Civilizations of Central Asia illustrated ed.
Indeed, it is possible that gunpowder devices, including Chinese mortar huochong , had reached Central Asia through the Mongols as early as the thirteenth century. The presence of these individuals in China in the s, and the deployment of Chinese engineers in Iran, mean that there were several routes by which information about gunpowder weapons could pass from the Islamic world to China, or vice versa. Thus when two authors from the eastern Mediterranean region wrote books about gunpowder weapons around the year , it is not surprising that they described bombs, rockets and fire-lances very similar to some types of Chinese weaponry.
The Encyclopedia of World History. Houghton Muffin Books. Iran, a Country study. University of Michigan, p. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. History of the Ottoman Empire. Tauris March 30, Retrieved 12 May Savory, II, p. Tauris, pp. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. British Interests in the Persian Gulf. Brill Archive. London : Weidenfeld and Nicolson. The Cambridge History of Iran. Agha Muhammad Khan remained nine days in the vicinity of Tiflis. His victory proclaimed the restoration of Iranian military power in the region formerly under Safavid domination. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition.
Columbia University Press. Batalden, Sandra The newly independent states of Eurasia: handbook of former Soviet republics. Ebel, Robert, Menon, Rajan Energy and conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Russia and Iran in the great game: travelogues and orientalism reprint ed. The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. University of Michigan. Basic Books. Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 23 April Tehran: Hazar-e Kerman. Retrieved 23 May Large numbers of Georgian and Armenian captives had lived in Iran since or as far back as The Books of Histories ; chapter 4.
Quote: "[The Shah] deep inside understood that he would be unable to resist Sinan Pasha, i. Therefore he ordered to relocate the whole population of Armenia - Christians, Jews and Muslims alike, to Persia, so that the Ottomans find the country depopulated. International Affairs, Vol. Hess, "the Iranian Crisis of —46 and the Cold War. BBC News. Retrieved 20 August New York: Times Books. A History of the Modern Middle East.
Mosaddeq was briefly removed from power in but was quickly re-appointed by the shah, due to a popular uprising in support of the premier and he, in turn, forced the Shah into a brief exile in August after a failed military coup by Imperial Guard Colonel Nematollah Nassiri. In between, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi left the country for exile in January after strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country, and on February 1, Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Tehran. In an attempt to build on the momentum from the Istanbul talks, both sides went to Baghdad with specific proposals on key issues. Ebel, Robert, Menon, Rajan Restoring the waivers therefore preserves an important future incentive that can be realized only through successful negotiations. Do they have to request a meeting at some level? Part of a series on the.
Boulder, CO: Westview Press. August 3, The New York Times. September 9, Archived from the original on November 2, Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on April 18, The Washington Times. Los Angeles Times. The Guardian.
History of Asia. Book Category Asia portal. Iran topics. Sasanian Empire — AD. Patriarchal Caliphate — Umayyad Caliphate — Abbasid Caliphate — Tahirid dynasty — Alavid dynasty — Saffarid dynasty — Samanid dynasty — Ziyarid dynasty — Buyid dynasty — Ambassadors President Provincial governors Supreme Leader. Science and technology Anti-Iranian sentiment Tehrangeles. Category Portal WikiProject Commons. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Webarchive template wayback links Pages using web citations with no URL CS1 maint: archived copy as title CS1 maint: extra punctuation CS1 maint: uses authors parameter CS1: long volume value CS1 Persian-language sources fa Articles with Russian-language external links CS1 maint: extra text: authors list All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from May CS1 errors: missing periodical Articles containing video clips.
Some Iranian families consider separation from husband a terrible outcome which in turn isolates women when their marriage breaks down. I never loved him. I got divorced. My family did not accept me and abandoned me. She was 38 years old, who had used drug for 14 years FGD1. Divorce and addiction are two interrelated phenomena where either can cause the other.
Divorce is a negative status in Iranian culture for women, and women are prone to social impairment after divorce. The findings highlight the point that the stigma attached to drug use can lead women to lose their social and family supports. Some women choose to leave the family because there is no affection, intimacy or togetherness, and nobody cares or wants them as a member of the family. They are unable to believe in their ability, capability and confidence to provide their basic needs or to achieve their life goals.
These negative self-perceptions are created by stigma originating from society at large. Therefore, it seems that they have changed their view of their sexual potential and values, and internalized the stigma that they always would be exposed to sexual misuse or abuse. As a result, they resort to having sex with strangers in order to survive. Like other women in this study, a participant thought women should be abandoned from the community. Other problems such as divorce are the results; she even humiliates herself and always step backs from the community.
She aged 29 and used drug for 9 years FGD2. She was 44 years old and had used drugs for 22 years FGD3. Self-negation was found an important consequence of living in the context of drug use. Women perceived their addictive behaviors as what would ruin their lives. Women point out their ruined femininity as the reason for separation and isolation from society. Further, the participants were deviated from their learned gender role. They had easily degraded their gender-based values as well as roles. In other words, these women have defined another construction for their gender role in the context of drug abuse.
Many of the women felt damaged and worthless because they had been violated and abused physically, sexually and psychologically, as it is evident from their narratives. She was 37 years old who has used drugs for 15 years FGDs. Men should not have looked at me like a sex worker well I am addict She was 32 years old who has used drugs for 12 years FGD1. She was 44 years old who has used drugs for 16 years. She never said she was sex worker but talked about her girl friend who was an addict and a sex worker FDG2.
The differences causing the ambivalence in sexual discourse in Iran seemed to be evasions, negations of femininity, and ignorance of their sexual rights. Feeling worthless clearly put women in the context of risk as reflected from their narratives. They might have ignored using safe sex skills knowingly and emotionally in order to die sooner.
Strive to survive. Our findings showed that earning money was the primary reason for women to become sex worker. She was 29 years FGD3. She was 49 years and a sex worker for more than a decade and rationalized her involvement in sex work FGD2. It was a dominant belief among the participants. The lack of self-confidence caused by social stigma was a common problem which adversely affected their efficacy in problem-solving.
In other words, some of them consciously avoid using condom and put their lives at risk of STIs. She was 38 years and a sex worker for 15 years FGD3. They told they even use condom for sex work with their partners.
The participants argued that they accept unsafe sexual behavior due to gender role alteration in the context of drug. From their point of view, women who use drugs are considered totally fallen and do not deserve to have a healthy and happy life unlike those women who are not labeled as an addict. She was 39 years old and a poly drug user FGD3.
She was 27 years old and a crack user FGD1. They emphasized stereotypical norms about women with drug problem compared with their male counterparts in the Iranian culture. In this interpretive approach, the shift in sexual behaviors from the norm to deviated and risky patterns was explored in the context of drug use for women in Iran. Some defined this as financial support, and others described it as psychosocial support. When women were affected by drugs, they described themselves as a neglected person who loses contact with the family and control over her social life as a careless individual.
Even though her family did not reject her, she felt she had to leave her family to obtain drugs. Turning sexual behaviors from healthy into risky patterns is common among drug users. The issue is mentioned in other studies like in South Africa where women with substance dependency are exposed to violence and a range of unsafe sex behaviors, including high levels of gender inequity and the disempowerment. Our participants had used substances prior to being a sex worker, whereas in one studythey had used stimulant and opiate following the beginning of sex work with men For our participants, risky sexual behaviors were associated with their lives in the context of SUDs by two major concepts, 1 internal feeling; being worthless, self-sex-negation, low self-efficacy and 2 external circumstances; stigmatization, divorce, inability to support themselves.
Labels and stigma related SUDs are social and cultural processes in many countries like Indonesia and Vietnam that may lead to unacceptability and unworthiness at individual, social and cultural levels 38 , Drug use in Iranian community like many other countries in the world has the high degree of stigma especially for women.
It is a mental process with negative feelings about self that can be caused by personal experience resulting from negative social reactions. A person who understands the concept of self tends to perceive everything through the perspective of motivation, imagination and feeling Our findings highlighted the risk-taking pattern when women narrate their sexual lives after becoming addicted. Living in this cycle led women to feel worthless and experience rejection. Feeling of worthlessness appears to be strongly associated with high-risk behavior in these women.
The person with poor feelings of self-worth and low self-efficacy may be principally vulnerable to drug use as a way of escaping from their negative feelings. The result of one study revealed that there was correlation between low self-worth and engagement in risky behaviors such as using higher levels of cigarette, marijuana, and other illegal drugs Divorce related stigma is a gender-based phenomenon as it is different for men and women in the Iranian culture In the Iranian culture, a woman is respected when she is pure which indicates her dignity and chastity throughout her womanhood.
While a drug using woman is socially stigmatized, her dignity and honor would be fully destroyed. As a result, the woman would receive no support from her society mentally and economically.
She, therefore, uses her sexual potential as a means to struggle for survival. Negative perception was evident when women described their sexual understanding and sexual experiences. Sexual relations in Iranian society and culture are defined concepts for couples; loyalty to husband seems to be an important component of a devoted woman and her sexuality Motivation for sex worker varies in different societies and cultures.
In a number of countries, sex work is directly related to the tourism and immigration. Sex work is viewed as a business in different forms of having sex, nude paintings and movies, strip clubs, and pornography, phone sex or the internet. Sometimes, it is carried out to pay debts, to survive, or to simply earn a living 14 , 48 while in our study sex work was constructed by some other concepts.
They became CSWs to provide drugs for themselves and their spouse as well as shelter. The explanatory model drawn from the findings shows the close linkage between substance use disorders and sexuality of women. Selling sex and unsafe sexual encounters were common for the following main reasons: women do not have comprehensive perception of risk due to being under drug influences; lack of enough knowledge and safe sex skills and alteration of their gender based sexual scripts.
They were enforced to commit risky sexual behaviors and become CSW because they had to survive when they were divorced, unemployed, or if they lost their family support and became homeless. That is, gender norm appears to influence the impact of social norms toward a drug using woman.
It also influences believing in an inability to have control over sexual behaviors in an unsafe context i. Norms and sexuality of a drug user seem to have profound impact on condom use and intentions to engage in unsafe sex. This study was conducted with those who were drug users and sex workers. In other words, there was no insight into the standpoints or experiences of sex workers who were not drug users. Adequate and culturally comprehensive assessment in Iranian women with SUDs is recommended. Gender specific programs are critical to improve treatment outcomes and sexual health for women who are drug users.
Authors would like to thank all the study participants. We kindly express our appreciation to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Conflict of Interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Reprod Infertil v. J Reprod Infertil. Brady 6. Kathleen T. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jun 10; Accepted Aug This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Background: Substance use disorders and risky sexual behavior coexist for some women. Results: Three major themes emerged from the data analysis regarding their lives in the context of substance use; 1 life in the context of drug abuse, 2 negative self-perception, and 3 strive to survive. Introduction Substance use disorders can be hurtful to health 1. Methods Our ethnographic study was done from January to February Transferability: For the matter of transferability, interview with maximum variation was done; for this reason, participants aged 18 and above, and various level of education, social, sexual experiences, and people with different beliefs were included and even two substance dependent women who were not sex workers were also interviewed These women had husband and lived with them in the home and the women asserted that they were not with other men.
Dependability: The stability of qualitative findings was ensured; for this reason, the finding was reviewed by two expert members of the research team who were experienced colleagues in qualitative studies. Conformability: For this purpose, the whole process of data collection, analyzing and extracting the themes was explained fully so that others could read and distinguish the research. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Life in the context of drug abuse: Drug abuse provided changes in the life of majority of the participants. Social stigma: The findings highlight the point that the stigma attached to drug use can lead women to lose their social and family supports.
Self-forgetfulness: Self-negation was found an important consequence of living in the context of drug use. Low self-efficacy: The lack of self-confidence caused by social stigma was a common problem which adversely affected their efficacy in problem-solving. Unsafe sexual context: The participants argued that they accept unsafe sexual behavior due to gender role alteration in the context of drug.
Discussion In this interpretive approach, the shift in sexual behaviors from the norm to deviated and risky patterns was explored in the context of drug use for women in Iran. Conclusion The explanatory model drawn from the findings shows the close linkage between substance use disorders and sexuality of women. Acknowledgement Authors would like to thank all the study participants. Interview guide for semi-structured interviews.
Questions 1 What do you mean by a safe sex action? Footnotes Conflict of Interest The author s declare no conflicts of interest. References 1. Drug Alcohol Depend. Gender differences in mortality among treated opioid dependent patients. Co-occurrence of sexual risk behaviors and substance use across emerging adulthood: evidence for state-and trait-level associations. Effectiveness of education health belief model based on high risk behaviour in drug abuse women [dissertation]. Drug Control Headquarters the counselor.
The reasons women use illicit substances. Drug Control Headquarters Iran ; January 25, Intimate partner violence and condom use among women: does the information-motivation-behavioral skills model explain sexual risk behavior? AIDS Behav. Grossman M, Markowitz S. I did what last nit risky sexual behaiors and substance use.