It also boosts academic performance: Managing emotions is a better predictor of academic achievement than IQ Lehrer, If they are too distressed, kids shut down their empathetic instincts because they can't think clearly enough to help. Regulating feelings starts by teaching children how to recognize their stress triggers and signs before they're in overload. That's why calm-down corners, mood rooms, and stress boxes which contain sensory objects like stress balls or fidget spinners are popping up in schools from coast to coast.
I've watched 1st graders practice belly breathing and high schoolers do yoga to stay cool. Many educators embrace mindfulness meditation because it is proven to reduce stress and nurture empathy. Visitacion Valley School in San Francisco introduced a twice-daily, minute ritual in which students choose to sit quietly or meditate. Quiet time has been an effective strategy in this middle school because each student chooses what works for him or her and practices the self-regulation technique until it becomes a habit.
An unprecedented rise in youth depression and anxiety make teaching this fifth competency all the more urgent. Being kind is what helps children tune in to other people's feelings and needs, trust more, and become more "we" oriented and less "me" oriented. Each kind act nudges kids to notice others "I see how you feel" , care "I'm concerned about you" , empathize "I feel with you" , and help and comfort them "Let me ease your pain".
Practicing kindness can also change children's self-image and behavior. If a child sees herself as kind, she is more likely to act kindly. Kindness is strengthened by seeing, hearing, and practicing kindness. I've seen kindergarteners give one another morning greetings with smiles, handshakes, and eye contact. In Bremerton, Washington, "Kindness Ambassadors" meet their peers at the school entrance with friendly greetings. Students at Pleasant Prairie Elementary in Wisconsin give each other high fives during passing periods.
Encourage simple kindness routines like these with your students. Kindness also jump-starts a cascade of beneficial effects not only for the receiver, but for the giver. One Minnesota educator encouraged students to do two kind things each day and discovered the kids actually seemed to become kinder. A psychology teacher had students chart their kind acts for six weeks. The kids realized they were happier, probably because they noticed how much recipients appreciated their caring deeds. Aesop said it best: "No act of kindness, no matter how small, is ever wasted.
Empathy is never a solitary act: It's only when we let go of our self-centeredness and feel with others that our hearts open. Working together on common goals can help students make that crucial shift from "me" to "we. This competency also broadens students' social spheres, preparing them for a diverse world.
Teamwork projects can strengthen students' abilities to encourage others, resolve conflicts, and disagree respectfully—important aspects of empathy. Many collaborative practices support empathy education and academic growth. Cooperative learning enhances achievement and boosts empathy skills like listening for feelings and perspective taking Dean et al. Conflict resolution helps students work together to solve problems. Moral courage is the inner strength that motivates children to act on their empathetic urges and help others despite the potential consequences.
Demonstrating moral courage is not always easy, but children who do so stick their necks out for justice and compassion. They are upstanders—the empathetic elite—who stand up for others because they know deep down it's the right thing to do. Acting courageously increases students' resilience, creativity, confidence, willpower, and school engagement—and is teachable.
Mobilizing moral courage may be our best hope to stop cruelty and violence in schools. Train your staff to teach upstander strategies so students learn how to safely assist bullied peers or those treated unfairly. I've watched students role-play upstander skills, teach them to younger kids, and present them to peers in assemblies. Strategies like debate, engaging class discussions, Socratic dialogue, and civic discourse also help students find their voice and practice speaking out.
Lessons that help kids recognize that even ordinary people like themselves can do extraordinary things are invaluable. They can be found in history, through the stories of figures like Gandhi or Nelson Mandela; in fiction, through characters like Dorothy Gale or Harry Potter; or in real life, through examples of heroism from veterans, first responders, or whistle blowers. Keep a box of news articles about heroes and encourage students to find more, then lead discussions about how courage helps us do extraordinary things. Kids need heroes to inspire their courage.
Encouraging students to help others can activate empathy and help them see themselves as changemakers: individuals who make positive changes and inspire others to follow. Every student, regardless of zip code, has the potential to make the world a better place, if we provide the right experiences. School service projects, whether bringing toys to a community shelter or delivering books to a senior home, can help children see the world through others' eyes.
And they can be valuable learning experiences. A Seattle 2nd grade teacher's yearly science, math, and service project is to assign each student one square foot in the school's garden.
They graph their plot, plant their vegetable of choice, and tend it; but the peak moment is when they hand-deliver their harvest to a local soup kitchen. This ninth competency helps children understand they can improve their world by taking action. These are the graduates we need, and it starts with empathy.
Above all the benefits described, empathy makes our students better people. It is what will help them live one essential truth: We are all humans who share the same fears and concerns, and we deserve to be treated with dignity. School leaders have important work to do. What will be your next step in making empathy education a reality for your students? Principles of Effective Empathy Education Effective empathy education requires seven core principles guided by strong, empathetic school leaders.
Woven-In: Empathy competencies are integrated into content and interactions, not tacked on. Meaningful: Instruction is authentic, touches the heart and mind, and stretches "me" to "we. Internalized: The goal is for students to adopt empathy competencies as lifelong habits. Empathic Leadership: Empathy is modeled, expected, and core to a principal's vision, purpose, style, and interactions.
What examples can you cite from your own school? What practical steps could you or your school take to boost students' skills in these areas? In what ways could you improve your efforts? Barraza, J. The heart of the story: Peripheral physiology during narrative exposure predicts charitable giving. Biological Psychology, , — Borba, M. UnSelfie: Why empathetic kids succeed in our all-about-me world. New York: Touchstone. Dean, C.
Henderson, S. Blackburn , K. The meal finally ends by the concerted actions of several satiety signals, like gastric distension and the release of insulin. If each betrays the other, each will receive a two-year sentence. Full-coverage displays can place visual content anywhere on the interior surfaces of a room e. Voice assistants have become important for a wide range of use cases, yet current interfaces are using the same style of auditory response in every situation, despite varying user needs and personalities. A camera focuses on one or both eyes and records the movements while the viewer looks at some stimulus.
Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement , 2nd edition. Eisenberg, N. Empathy-related responding: Associations with prosocial behavior, aggression, and intergroup relations. Social Issues and Policy Review, 4 1 , — Goleman, D. Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ.
NY: Bantam Books. Summer What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review OnPoint , 24— Gottman, J. The heart of parenting: How to raise an emotionally intelligent child. Hawkins, D. Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying. Social Development, 10 4 , — Heath, C. Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. NY: Random House. Jones, S. How to build empathy and strengthen your school community.
Konrath, S. Empathy: College students don't have as much as they used to, study finds. Personality and Social Psychology Review. Retrieved from www. Lehrer, J. The secret of self-control. The New Yorker. Luks, A.
The healing power of doing good. NY: iUniverse. Mar, R. Exploring the link between reading fiction and empathy: Ruling out individual differences and examining outcomes. To provide guidance on how to design training games for this population, we conducted a survey of participants from three populations: online college-age, students from a low SES high school, and students from a high SES high school. Participants took a timed test of spatial skills and then answered questions about their demographics, gameplay habits, preferences, and motivations.
The only predictors of spatial skill were gender and population: female participants from online and low SES high school populations had the lowest spatial skill. In light of these findings, we provide design recommendations for game-based spatial skill interventions targeting low spatial skill students. Trust facilitates cooperation and supports positive outcomes in social groups, including member satisfaction, information sharing, and task performance.
Here, we build on past work to present a comprehensive framework for predicting trust in groups. Last, we demonstrate how group trust predicts outcomes at both individual and group level such as the formation of new friendship ties. Visualization tools facilitate exploratory data analysis, but fall short at supporting hypothesis-based reasoning.
We conducted an exploratory study to investigate how visualizations might support a concept-driven analysis style, where users can optionally share their hypotheses and conceptual models in natural language, and receive customized plots depicting the fit of their models to the data. We report on how participants leveraged these unique affordances for visual analysis.
We found that a majority of participants articulated meaningful models and predictions, utilizing them as entry points to sensemaking. We contribute an abstract typology representing the types of models participants held and externalized as data expectations. Our findings suggest ways for rearchitecting visual analytics tools to better support hypothesis- and model-based reasoning, in addition to their traditional role in exploratory analysis. We discuss the design implications and reflect on the potential benefits and challenges involved. We have developed a pictorial multi-item scale, called P-SUS Pictorial System Usability Scale , which aims to measure the perceived usability of mobile devices.
A user-centred design process was employed to develop and refine its 10 pictorial items. Psychometric properties convergent validity, criterion-related validity, sensitivity, and reliability , as well as the motivation to fill in the scale were assessed. The results indicated satisfactory convergent validity for about two-thirds of the items. Furthermore, strong correlations were obtained for the sum scores between verbal and pictorial SUS, and the pictorial scale was perceived as more motivating than the verbal questionnaire.
The P-SUS represents a first attempt to provide a pictorial usability scale for the evaluation of mobile devices. Public commentary related to reality TV can be overwhelmed by thoughtless reactions and negative sentiments, which often problematically reinforce the cultural stereotyping typically employed in such media. Our findings highlight how Screenr supported interrogation of the production qualities and claims of shows, promoted critical discourse around the motivations of programmes, and engaged participants in reflecting on their own assumptions and views.
We situate our results within the context of existing second-screening co-viewing work, discuss implications for such technologies to support critical engagement with socio-political media, and provide design implications for future digital technologies in this domain. Recent hand-held controllers have explored a variety of haptic feedback sensations for users in virtual reality by producing both kinesthetic and cutaneous feedback from virtual objects. In this paper, we present TORC, a rigid haptic controller that renders virtual object characteristics and behaviors such as texture and compliance.
During the interaction, vibrotactile motors produce sensations to each finger that represent the haptic feel of squeezing, shearing or turning an object. Our evaluation showed that using TORC, participants could manipulate virtual objects more precisely e. HCI4D researchers and practitioners have leveraged voice forums to enable people with literacy, socioeconomic, and connectivity barriers to access, report, and share information. Although voice forums have received impassioned usage from low-income, low-literate, rural, tribal, and disabled communities in diverse HCI4D contexts, the participation of women in these services is almost non-existent.
In this paper, we investigate the reasons for the low participation of women in social media voice forums by examining the use of Sangeet Swara in India and Baang in Pakistan by marginalized women and men. Our mixed-methods approach spanning content analysis of audio posts, quantitative analysis of interactions between users, and qualitative interviews with users indicate gender inequity due to deep-rooted patriarchal values. We found that women on these forums faced systemic discrimination and encountered abusive content, flirts, threats, and harassment.
We discuss design recommendations to create social media voice forums that foster gender equity in use of these services. In HCI, adult concerns about technologies for children have been studied extensively.
However, less is known about what children themselves find concerning in everyday technologies. The creepy signals from technology the children described include: deception, lack of control, mimicry, ominous physical appearance, and unpredictability. Children acknowledged trusted adults will mediate the relationship between creepy technology signals and fear responses. While educational technologies such as MOOCs have helped scale content-based learning, scaling situated learning is still challenging.
The time it takes to define a real-world project and to mentor learners is often prohibitive, especially given the limited contributions that novices are able to make. This paper introduces micro-role hierarchies, a form of coordination that integrates workflows and hierarchies to help short-term novices predictably contribute to complex projects. Individuals contribute through micro-roles, small experiential assignments taking roughly 2 hours. These micro-roles support execution of the desired work process, but also sequence into learning pathways, resulting in a learning dynamic similar to moving up an organizational hierarchy.
We demonstrate micro-role hierarchies through Causeway, a platform for learning web development while building websites for nonprofits. We carry out a proof-of-concept study in which learners built static websites for refugee resettlement agencies in 2 hour long roles. Tapping is an immensely important gesture in mobile touchscreen interfaces, yet people still frequently are required to learn which elements are tappable through trial and error.
Predicting human behavior for this everyday gesture can help mobile app designers understand an important aspect of the usability of their apps without having to run a user study. In this paper, we present an approach for modeling tappability of mobile interfaces at scale. We conducted large-scale data collection of interface tappability over a rich set of mobile apps using crowdsourcing and computationally investigated a variety of signifiers that people use to distinguish tappable versus not-tappable elements.
Based on the dataset, we developed and trained a deep neural network that predicts how likely a user will perceive an interface element as tappable versus not tappable. Using the trained tappability model, we developed TapShoe, a tool that automatically diagnoses mismatches between the tappability of each element as perceived by a human user—predicted by our model, and the intended or actual tappable state of the element specified by the developer or designer.
Our model achieved reasonable accuracy: mean precision The tappability model and TapShoe were well received by designers via an informal evaluation with 7 professional interaction designers. Navigating source code, an activity common in software development, is time consuming and in need of improvement. We present CodeGazer, a prototype for source code navigation using eye gaze for common navigation functions. Gaze-based navigation is also holding up well in completion time when compared to traditional methods.
HCI scholarship is increasingly concerned with the ethical impact of socio-technical systems. Current theoretically driven approaches that engage with ethics generally prescribe only abstract approaches by which designers might consider values in the design process. However, there is little guidance on methods that promote value discovery, which might lead to more specific examples of relevant values in specific design contexts.
We demonstrate the use of this method, called Ethicography, in describing value discovery and use throughout the design process.
Editorial Reviews. Review. Worringer's little book is an enduring classic. (James Sloan Allen Abstraction and Empathy: A Contribution to the Psychology of Style (Elephant Paperbacks) - Kindle edition by Wilhelm Worringer, Hilton Kramer. Press. First ELEPHANT PAPERBACK edition published by Ivan R. Dee, Abstraction and empathy: a contribution to the psychology of style I by. Wilhelm.
We present analysis of design activity by user experience UX design students in two lab protocol conditions, describing specific human values that designers considered for each task, and visualizing the interplay of these values. We identify opportunities for further research, using the Ethicograph method to illustrate value discovery and translation into design solutions.
Using qualitative methods, we analyzed problem descriptions to study the security issues users faced and the symptoms that led users to their own diagnoses.
Subsequently, we investigated to what extent and for what types of issues user diagnoses matched those of experts. We found, for example, that users and experts were likely to agree for most issues, but not for attacks e. Our findings inform several user-security improvements, including how to automate interactions with users to resolve issues and to better communicate issues to users.
Many personal informatics systems allow people to collect and manage personal data and reflect more deeply about themselves. However, these tools rarely offer ways to customize how the data is visualized.
In this work, we investigate the question of how to enable people to determine the representation of their data. We analyzed the Dear Data project to gain insights into the design elements of personal visualizations. We developed DataSelfie, a novel system that allows individuals to gather personal data and design custom visuals to represent the collected data.
We conducted a user study to evaluate the usability of the system as well as its potential for individual and collaborative sensemaking of the data. Virtual reality VR headsets allow wearers to escape their physical surroundings, immersing themselves in a virtual world. Although escape may not be realistic or acceptable in many everyday situations, air travel is one context where early adoption of VR could be very attractive. While travelling, passengers are seated in restricted spaces for long durations, reliant on limited seat-back displays or mobile devices.
This paper explores the social acceptability and usability of VR for in-flight entertainment. Based on the survey results, we developed a VR in-flight entertainment prototype and evaluated this in a focus group study. Our results discuss methods for improving the acceptability of VR in-flight, including using mixed reality to help users transition between virtual and physical environments and supporting interruption from other co-located people.
In video production, inserting B-roll is a widely used technique to enrich the story and make a video more engaging. However, determining the right content and positions of B-roll and actually inserting it within the main footage can be challenging, and novice producers often struggle to get both timing and content right. We present B-Script, a system that supports B-roll video editing via interactive transcripts. B-Script has a built-in recommendation system trained on expert-annotated data, recommending users B-roll position and content. To evaluate the system, we conducted a within-subject user study with participants, and compared three interface variations: a timeline-based editor, a transcript-based editor, and a transcript-based editor with recommendations.
Users found it easier and were faster to insert B-roll using the transcript-based interface, and they created more engaging videos when recommendations were provided. Dynamic elements of the drawing process e. Using our probe, we conducted studies with artists and art viewers, which reveal digital and physical representations of creative process as a means of reflecting on a multitude of factors about the finished artwork, including technique, style, and the emotions of the artists.
We conclude by discussing future directions for HCI systems that sense and visualize aspects of the creative process in digitally-mediated arts, as well as the social considerations of sharing and curating intimate process information. Although early interventions can provide significant benefits, PD diagnosis is often delayed due to both the mildness of early signs and the high requirements imposed by traditional screening and diagnosis methods.
We investigate four types of common gestures, including flick, drag, pinch, and handwriting gestures, and propose a set of features to capture PD motor signs. Through a subject 35 early PD subjects and 67 age-matched controls study, our approach achieved an AUC of 0. Our work constitutes an important step towards unobtrusive, implicit, and convenient early PD detection from routine smartphone interactions.
There is a growing body of literature in HCI examining the intersection between policymaking and technology research. However, what it means to engage in policymaking in our field, or the ways in which evidence from HCI studies is translated into policy, is not well understood. We report on interviews with 11 participants working at the intersection of technology research and policymaking. Analysis of this data highlights how evidence is understood and made sense of in policymaking processes, what forms of evidence are privileged over others, and the work that researchers engage in to meaningfully communicate their work to policymaking audiences.
We discuss how our findings pose challenges for certain traditions of research in HCI, yet also open up new policy opportunities for those engaging in more speculative research practices. We conclude by discussing three ways forward that the HCI community can explore to increase engagement with policymaking contexts.
Returning citizens formerly incarcerated individuals face great challenges finding employment, and these are exacerbated by the need for digital literacy in modern job search. Through 23 semi-structured interviews and a pilot digital literacy course with returning citizens in the Greater Detroit area, we explore tactics and needs with respect to job search and digital technology. Returning citizens exhibit great diversity, but overall, we find our participants to have striking gaps in digital literacy upon release, even as they are quickly introduced to smartphones by friends and family.
They tend to have employable skills and ability to use offline social networks to find opportunities, but have little understanding of formal job search processes, online or offline. They mostly mirror mainstream use of mobile technology, but they have various reasons to avoid social media. These and other findings lead to recommendations for digital literacy programs for returning citizens. To this end, we conducted a 2 platform: web vs. We found that the participants in the chatbot survey, as compared to those in the web survey, were more likely to produce differentiated responses and were less likely to satisfice; the chatbot survey thus resulted in higher-quality data.
Moreover, when a casual conversational style is used, the participants were less likely to satisfice-although such effects were only found in the chatbot condition. These results imply that conversational interactivity occurs when a chat interface is accompanied by messages with effective tone. In this study, we prototype and examine a system that allows a user to manipulate a 3D virtual object with multiple fingers without wearing any device.
An autostereoscopic display produces a 3D image and a depth sensor measures the movement of the fingers. When a user touches a virtual object, haptic feedback is provided by ultrasound phased arrays. By estimating the cross section of the finger in contact with the virtual object and by creating a force pattern around it, it is possible for the user to recognize the position of the surface relative to the finger. To evaluate our system, we conducted two experiments to show that the proposed feedback method is effective in recognizing the object surface and thereby enables the user to grasp the object quickly without seeing it.
Consequently, existing applications and evaluations often lack in focus on attractiveness and effectiveness, which should be addressed on the levels of body, controller, and game scenario following a holistic design approach. To contribute to this topic and as a proof-of-concept, we designed the ExerCube, an adaptive fitness game setup.
Regarding flow, enjoyment and motivation, the ExerCube is on par with personal training. Results further reveal differences in perception of exertion, types and quality of movement, social factors, feedback, and audio experiences. Finally, we derive considerations for future research and development directions in holistic fitness game setups.
Addressing digital security and privacy issues can be particularly difficult for users who face challenging circumstances. We performed semi-structured interviews with residents and staff at 4 transitional homeless shelters in the U. Based on these interviews, we outline four tough times themes — challenges experienced by our financially insecure participants that impacted their digital security and privacy — which included: 1 limited financial resources, 2 limited access to reliable devices and Internet, 3 untrusted relationships, and 4 ongoing stress. We provide examples of how each theme impacts digital security and privacy practices and needs.
We then use these themes to provide a framework outlining opportunities for technology creators to better support users facing security and privacy challenges related to financial insecurity. How does the presence of an audience influence the social interaction with a conversational system in a physical space? To answer this question, we analyzed data from an art exhibit where visitors interacted in natural language with three chatbots representing characters from a book. We performed two studies to explore the influence of audiences.
In Study 2, we analyzed over 5, conversation logs and video recordings, identifying dialogue patterns and how they correlated with the audience conditions. Some significant effects were found, suggesting that conversational systems in physical spaces should be designed based on whether other people observe the user or not. Reflecting on their performance during classroom-teaching is an important competence for teachers. Such reflection-in-action RiA enables them to optimize teaching on the spot.
Data scientists are responsible for the analysis decisions they make, but it is hard for them to track the process by which they achieved a result. Even when data scientists keep logs, it is onerous to make sense of the resulting large number of history records full of overlapping variants of code, output, plots, etc.
We developed algorithmic and visualization techniques for notebook code environments to help data scientists forage for information in their history. The quantitative results suggest promising aspects of our design, while qualitative results motivated a number of design improvements.
The resulting system, called Verdant, is released as an open-source extension for JupyterLab. The privacy guaranteed by secure messaging applications relies on users completing an authentication ceremony to verify they are using the proper encryption keys. We examine the feasibility of social authentication, which partially automates the ceremony using social media accounts.
We implemented social authentication in Signal and conducted a within-subject user study with 42 participants to compare this with existing methods. To generalize our results, we conducted a Mechanical Turk survey involving respondents. Our results show that users found social authentication to be convenient and fast. They particularly liked verifying keys asynchronously, and viewing social media profiles naturally coincided with how participants thought of verification. However, some participants reacted negatively to integrating social media with Signal, primarily because they distrust social media services.
Overall, automating the authentication ceremony and distributing trust with additional service providers is promising, but this infrastructure needs to be more trusted than social media companies. In this paper, we examine how deaf and hard of hearing DHH people think about and relate to sounds in the home, solicit feedback and reactions to initial domestic sound awareness systems, and explore potential concerns.
We present findings from two qualitative studies: in Study 1, 12 DHH participants discussed their perceptions of and experiences with sound in the home and provided feedback on initial sound awareness mockups. Informed by Study 1, we designed three tablet-based sound awareness prototypes, which we evaluated with 10 DHH participants using a Wizard-of-Oz approach. Together, our findings suggest a general interest in smarthome-based sound awareness systems particularly for displaying contextually aware, personalized and glanceable visualizations but key concerns arose related to privacy, activity tracking, cognitive overload, and trust.
Humans expect their collaborators to look beyond the explicit interpretation of their words. Implicature is a common form of implicit communication that arises in natural language discourse when an utterance leverages context to imply information beyond what the words literally convey. Whereas computational methods have been proposed for interpreting and using different forms of implicature, its role in human and artificial agent collaboration has not yet been explored in a concrete domain.
The results of this paper provide insights to how artificial agents should be structured to facilitate natural and efficient communication of actionable information with humans. We investigated implicature by implementing two strategies for playing Hanabi, a cooperative card game that relies heavily on communication of actionable implicit information to achieve a shared goal. These teams demonstrated game performance similar to other state of the art approaches.
This paper explores the use of conversational speech question and answer systems in the challenging context of public spaces in slums. A major part of this work is a comparison of the source and speed of the given responses; that is, either machine-powered and instant or human-powered and delayed. We examine these dimensions via a two-stage, multi-sited deployment. We report on a pilot deployment that helped refine the system, and a second deployment involving the installation of nine of each type of system within a large Mumbai slum for a day period, resulting in over 12, queries.
We present the findings from a detailed analysis and comparison of the two question-answer corpora; discuss how these insights might help improve machine-powered smart speakers; and, highlight the potential benefits of multi-sited public speech installations within slum environments. This paper investigates a hidden dimension of research with real world stakes: research subjects who care — sometimes deeply — about the topic of the research in which they participate.
They manifest this care, we show, by managing how they are represented in the research process, by exercising politics in shaping knowledge production, and sometimes in experiencing trauma in the process. We draw first-hand reflections on participation in diversity research on Wikipedia, transforming participants from objects of study to active negotiators of research process. We depict how care, vulnerability, harm, and emotions shape ethnographic and qualitative data.
We argue that, especially in reflexive cultures, research subjects are active agents with agendas, accountabilities, and political projects of their own. We propose ethics of care and collaboration to open up new possibilities for knowledge production and socio-technical intervention in HCI.
In this paper, we propose an anticipation-autonomy policy framework that models three levels of proactivity high, medium and low of service robots in DMS contexts. Results show that a highly proactive robot is deemed inappropriate though people can get rich information from it. The least proactive robot grants users more control but may not realize its full capability.
Research in Human-Computer Interaction for Development HCI4D routinely relies on and engages with the increasing penetration of smartphones and the internet. We examine the mobile, internet, and social media practices of women community health workers, for whom internet access has newly become possible. These workers are uniquely positioned at the intersections of various communities of practice—their familial units, workplaces, networks of health workers, larger communities, and the online world. However, they remain at the margins of each, on account of difference in gender, class, literacies, professional expertise, and more.
Our findings unpack the legitimate peripheral participation of these workers; examining how they appropriate smartphones and the internet to move away from the peripheries to fully participate in these communities. We discuss how their activities are motivated by moves towards empowerment, digitization, and improved healthcare provision. We consider how future work might support, leverage, and extend their efforts.
In this paper, we explore collaboration practices around structured data and how they are supported by current technology. We present the results of an interview study with twenty data practitioners, from which we derive four high-level user needs for tool support. We compare them against the capabilities of twenty systems that are commonly associated with data activities, including data publishing software, wikis, web-based collaboration tools, and online community platforms.
Our findings suggest that data-centric collaborative work would benefit from: structured documentation of data and its lifecycle; advanced affordances for conversations among collaborators; better change control; and custom data access. Raycasting is the most common target pointing technique in virtual reality environments.
Current pointing facilitation techniques are currently only applied in the context of the virtual hand, i. We propose enhancements to Raycasting: filtering the ray, and adding a controllable cursor on the ray to select the nearest target. We describe a series of studies for the design of the visual feedforward, filtering technique, as well as a comparative study between different 3D pointing techniques.
Our results show that highlighting the nearest target is one of the most efficient visual feedforward technique. We also show that filtering the ray reduces error rate in a drastic way. Finally we show the benefits of RayCursor compared to Raycasting and another technique from the literature. With upcoming breakthroughs in free-form display technologies, new user interface design challenges have emerged. Here, we investigate a question, which has been widely explored on traditional GUIs but unexplored on non-rectangular interfaces: what are the user strategies in terms of visual search when information is not presented in a traditional rectangular layout?
To achieve this, we present two complementary studies investigating eye movements in different visual search tasks. Our results unveil which areas are seen first according to different visual structures. By doing so we address the question of where to place relevant content for the UI designers of non-rectangular displays. Digital-augmentation of print-media can provide contextually relevant audio, visual, or haptic content to supplement the static text and images. The design of such augmentation—its medium, quantity, frequency, content, and access technique—can have a significant impact on the reading experience.
In the worst case, such as where children are learning to read, the print medium can become a proxy for accessing digital content only, and the textual content is avoided. We first report on the usage of a commercially available augmented comic for children, providing evidence that a third of all readers converted to simply viewing the digital media when printed content is duplicated. Second, we explore the design space for digital content augmentation in print media. Third, we report a user study with children that examined the impact of both content length and presentation in a digitally-augmented comic book.
From this, we report a series of design guidelines to assist designers and editors in the development of digitally-augmented print media. Sketches and real-world user interface examples are frequently used in multiple stages of the user interface design process. Unfortunately, finding relevant user interface examples, especially in large-scale datasets, is a highly challenging task because user interfaces have aesthetic and functional properties that are only indirectly reflected by their corresponding pixel data and meta-data.
This paper introduces Swire, a sketch-based neural-network-driven technique for retrieving user interfaces. We collect the first large-scale user interface sketch dataset from the development of Swire that researchers can use to develop new sketch-based data-driven design interfaces and applications. With this technique, for the first time designers can accurately retrieve relevant user interface examples with free-form sketches natural to their design workflows.
We demonstrate several novel applications driven by Swire that could greatly augment the user interface design process. Comics are an entertaining and familiar medium for presenting compelling stories about data. However, existing visualization authoring tools do not leverage this expressive medium. In this paper, we seek to incorporate elements of comics into the construction of data-driven stories about dynamic networks.
We contribute DataToon, a flexible data comic storyboarding tool that blends analysis and presentation with pen and touch interactions. A storyteller can use DataToon rapidly generate visualization panels, annotate them, and position them within a canvas to produce a visually compelling narrative. In a user study, participants quickly learned to use DataToon for producing data comics. Children under 11 are often regarded as too young to comprehend the implications of online privacy.
Such knowledge is, however, critical for designing efficient safeguarding mechanisms for this age group. Through 12 focus group studies with 29 children aged from UK schools, we examined how children described privacy risks related to their use of tablet computers and what information was used by them to identify threats. We found that children could identify and articulate certain privacy risks well, such as information oversharing or revealing real identities online; however, they had less awareness with respect to other risks, such as online tracking or game promotions. Self-tracking can help people understand their medical condition and the factors that influence their symptoms.
However, it is unclear how tracking technologies should be tailored to help people cope with the progression of a degenerative disease. We describe how symptom trackers can help people identify and solve problems to improve their quality of life, the role symptom trackers can play in helping people combat their own tendencies towards avoidance and denial, and the complex role of care partners in defining and tracking ambiguous symptoms. Phishing attacks are a major problem, as evidenced by the DNC hackings during the US presidential election, in which staff were tricked into sharing passwords by fake Google security emails, granting access to confidential information.
Vulnerabilities such as these are due in part to insufficient and tiresome user training in cybersecurity. Ideally, we would have more engaging training methods that teach cybersecurity in an active and entertaining way. To address this need, we introduce the game What. Hack, which not only teaches phishing concepts but also simulates actual phishing attacks in a role-playing game to encourage the player to practice defending themselves. Our user study shows that our game design is more engaging and effective in improving performance than a standard form of training and a competing training game design which does not simulate phishing attempts through role-playing.
Existing methods for researching and designing to support relationships between parents and their adult children tend to lead to designs that respect the differences between them. We conducted 14 Position Exchange Workshops with parents and their adult children, where the child has left home in recent years, aiming to explicate and confront their positions in creative and supportive ways. The findings show that the methods facilitated understanding, renegotiating, and reimagining their current positions. We discuss how positions can help consider both perspectives in the design process.
This paper seeks to contribute 1 how the notion of positions enables generating understandings of the relationship, and 2 a set of methods influenced by position exchange, empathy, and playful engagement that help explore human relationships. Every person is unique, with individual behavioural characteristics: how one moves, coordinates, and uses their body. In this paper we investigate body motion as behavioural biometrics for virtual reality. In particular, we look into which behaviour is suitable to identify a user. These body segments can be arbitrarily combined into body relations, and we found that these movements and their combination lead to characteristic behavioural patterns.
Our findings are beneficial for researchers and practitioners alike who aim to build novel adaptive and secure user interfaces in virtual reality. Current virtual reality applications do not support people who have low vision, i. We present SeeingVR, a set of 14 tools that enhance a VR application for people with low vision by providing visual and audio augmentations. A user can select, adjust, and combine different tools based on their preferences. Nine of our tools modify an existing VR application post hoc via a plugin without developer effort.
The rest require simple inputs from developers using a Unity toolkit we created that allows integrating all 14 of our low vision support tools during development. Our evaluation with 11 participants with low vision showed that SeeingVR enabled users to better enjoy VR and complete tasks more quickly and accurately. Developers also found our Unity toolkit easy and convenient to use.
New technologies emerge into an increasingly complex everyday life. How can we engage users further into material practices that explore ideas and notions of these new things? This paper proposes a set of qualities for short, intense, workshop-like experiences, created to generate strong individual commitments, and expose underlying personal desires as drivers for ideas.
By making use of open-ended making to engage participants in the imagination of new things, we aim to allow a broad range of knowledge to materialise, focused on the making of work that is about technology, rather than of technology. Underperforming, degraded, and missing insulation in US residential buildings is common. Detecting these issues, however, can be difficult. Using thermal cameras during energy audits can aid in locating potential insulation issues, but prior work indicates it is challenging to determine their severity using thermal imagery alone.
In this work, we present an easy-to-deploy, temporal thermographic sensor system designed to support residential energy audits through quantitative analysis of building envelope performance. We then offer an evaluation of the system through two studies: i a one-week, in-home field study in five homes and ii a semi-structured interview study with five professional energy auditors.
Emerging technologies—such as the voice enabled internet—present many opportunities and challenges for HCI research and society as a whole. Advocating for better, healthier implementations of these technologies will require us to communicate abstract values, such as trust, to an audience that ranges from the general public to technologists and even policymakers.
In this paper, we show how a combination of film-making and product design can help to illustrate these abstract values. Working as part of a wider international advocacy campaign, Our Friends Electric focuses on the voice enabled internet, translating abstract notions of Internet Health into comprehensible digital futures for the relationship between our voice and the internet.
We conclude with a call for designers of physical things to be more involved with the development of trust, privacy and security in this powerful emerging technological landscape. Turning these research outputs into productive interventions, however, is difficult. We argue that design is well positioned to address such a challenge thanks to its methodological traditions of problem setting and framing situated in synthetic rather than analytic knowledge production.
In this paper, we focus on designing for experiences of menopause. We document the unfolding of our design reasoning, showing how good-seeming insights nonetheless often lead to bad designs, while working progressively towards stronger insights and design constructs. Previous research on games for people with visual impairment PVI has focused on co-designing or evaluating specific games — mostly under controlled conditions. To explore these issues, we conducted an online survey and follow-up interviews with gamers with VI GVI.
Dominant themes from our analysis include the particular appeal of digital games to GVI, the importance of social trajectories and histories of gameplay, the need to balance complexity and accessibility in both games targeted to PVI and mainstream games, opinions about the state of the gaming industry, and accessibility concerns around new and emerging technologies such as VR and AR. Our study gives voice to an underrepresented group in the gaming community. Understanding the practices, experiences and motivations of GVI provides a valuable foundation for informing development of more inclusive games.
How humans use computers has evolved from human-machine interfaces to human-human computer mediated communication. Whilst the field of animal-computer interaction has roots in HCI, technology developed in this area currently only supports animal? This design fiction paper presents animal-animal connected interfaces, using dogs as an instance. Through a co-design workshop, we created six proposals. The designs focused on what a dog internet could look like and how interactions might be presented.
This resulted in the use of objects seen as familiar to dogs. This was conjoined with interest in how to initiate and end interactions, which was often achieved through notification systems. This paper builds upon HCI methods for unconventional users, and applies a design fiction approach to uncover key questions towards the creation of animal-to-animal interfaces. Human Computer Interaction has developed great interest in the Maker Movement. Previous work has explored it from various perspectives, focusing either on its potentials or issues. As these are however only fragmented portrayals, this paper aims to take a broader perspective and interconnect some of the fragments.
We conducted a qualitative study in the context of two Maker Faires to gain a better understanding of the complex dynamics that makers operate in. We captured the voices of different stakeholders and explored how their respective agendas relate to each other. The findings illustrate how the event is co-created at the nexus of different technological, social and economic interests while leaving space for diverse practices. The paper contributes a first focused analysis of Maker Faire, probes it as a site for research and discusses how holistic perspectives on the Maker Movement could create new research opportunities.
Tools for self-care of chronic conditions often do not fit the contexts in which self-care happens because the influence of context on self-care practices is unclear. We conducted a diary study with 15 adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes and their caregivers to understand how context affects self-care. We observed different contextual settings, which we call contextual frames, in which diabetes self-management varied depending on certain factors — physical activity, food, emotional state, insulin, people, and attitudes.
The relative prevalence of these factors across contextual frames impacts self-care necessitating different types of support. We show that contextual frames, as phenomenological abstractions of context, can help designers of context-aware systems systematically explore and model the relation of context with behavior and with technology supporting behavior.
Lastly, considering contextual frames as sensitizing concepts, we provide design direction for using context in technology design. Lassoing objects is a basic function in illustration software and presentation tools. Yet, for many common object arrangements lassoing is sometimes time-consuming to perform and requires precise pen operation.
In this work, we studied lassoing movements in a grid of objects similar to icons. We propose a quantitative model to predict the time to lasso such objects depending on the margins between icons, their sizes, and layout, which all affect the number of stopping and crossing movements. Results of two experiments showed that our models predict fully and partially constrained movements with high accuracy. We also analyzed the speed profiles and pen stroke trajectories and identified deeper insights into user behaviors, such as that an unconstrained area can induce higher movement speeds even in preceding path segments.
Mid-air tactile stimulation using ultrasonics has been used in a variety of human computer interfaces in the form of prototypes as well as products. When generating these tactile patterns with mid-air tactile ultrasonic displays, the common approach has been to sample the patterns using the hardware update rate capabilities to their full extent. In the current study we show that the hardware update rate can impact perception, but unexpectedly we find that higher update rates do not improve pattern perception. In a first user study, we highlight the effect of update rate on the perceived strength of a pattern, especially for patterns rendered at slow rate of less than 10 Hz.
In a second user study, we identify the evolution of the optimal update rate according to variations in pattern size. Our main results show that update rate should be designated as additional parameter for tactile patterns. We also discuss how the relationships we defined in the current study can be implemented into designer tools so that designers remain oblivious to this additional complexity. Work addressing the negative impacts of domestic violence on victim-survivors and service providers has slowly been contributing to the HCI discourse. However, work discussing the necessary, pre-emptive steps for researchers to enter these spaces sensitively and considerately, largely remains opaque.
Heavily-politicised specialisms that are imbued with conflicting values and practices, such as domestic violence service delivery can be especially difficult to navigate. In this paper, we report on a mixed methods study consisting of interviews, a design dialogue and an ideation workshop with domestic violence service providers to explore the potential of an online service directory to support their work. Drawing from our findings, we discuss opportunities for researchers to work with and sustain complex information ecologies in sensitive settings.
Self-monitoring for this could be lifesaving, as the syndrome can result in sudden death, but detecting it on the ECG is difficult. Here we evaluate whether using pseudo-colour to highlight wave length and changing the coordinate system can support lay people in identifying increases in the QT interval.
The results show that introducing colour significantly improves accuracy, and that whilst it is easier to detect a difference without colour with Cartesian coordinates, the greatest accuracy is achieved when Polar coordinates are combined with colour. The results show that applying simple visualisation techniques has the potential to improve ECG interpretation accuracy, and support people in monitoring their own ECG. Opioid use disorder OUD poses substantial risks to personal well-being and public health.
In online communities, users support those seeking recovery, in part by promoting clinically grounded treatments. However, some communities also promote clinically unverified OUD treatments, such as unregulated and untested drugs. Little research exists on which alternative treatments people use, whether these treatments are effective for recovery, or if they cause negative side effects.
We provide the first large-scale social media study of clinically unverified, alternative treatments in OUD recovery on Reddit, partnering with an addiction research scientist. We adopt transfer learning across 63 subreddits to precisely identify posts related to opioid recovery. Then, we quantitatively discover potential alternative treatments and contextualize their effectiveness. Our work benefits health research and practice by identifying undiscovered recovery strategies. We also discuss the impacts to online communities dealing with stigmatized behavior and research ethics.
Electroactive polymers EAP are a promising material for shape changing interfaces, soft robotics and other novel design explorations. However, the uptake of EAP prototyping in design, art and architecture has been slow due to limited commercial availability, challenging high voltage electronics and lack of simple fabrication techniques. This paper introduces DIY tools for building and activating EAP prototypes, together with design methods for making novel shape-changing surfaces and structures, outside of material science labs.
We present iterations of our methods and tools, their use and evaluation in participatory workshops and public installations and how they affect the design outcomes. We discuss unique aesthetic and interactive experiences enabled by the organic and subtle movement of semi-transparent EAP membranes. Finally, we summarise the potential of design tools and methods to facilitate increased exploration of interactive EAP prototypes and outline future steps.
With the rise of big data, there has been an increasing need for practitioners in this space and an increasing opportunity for researchers to understand their workflows and design new tools to improve it. Data science is often described as data-driven, comprising unambiguous data and proceeding through regularized steps of analysis. However, this view focuses more on abstract processes, pipelines, and workflows, and less on how data science workers engage with the data. In this paper, we build on the work of other CSCW and HCI researchers in describing the ways that scientists, scholars, engineers, and others work with their data, through analyses of interviews with 21 data science professionals.
We set five approaches to data along a dimension of interventions: Data as given; as captured; as curated; as designed; and as created. Data science workers develop an intuitive sense of their data and processes, and actively shape their data. We propose new ways to apply these interventions analytically, to make sense of the complex activities around data practices.
This is a shortcut and leaves out design opportunities by omitting a more nuanced idea of autonomy. To improve our understanding of how people with severe physical disabilities experience autonomy, particularly in the context of Assistive Technologies, we engaged in in-depth fieldwork with 15 people with Multiple Sclerosis who were used to assistive devices.
We constructed a grounded theory from a series of interviews, focus groups and observations, pointing to strategies in which participants sought autonomy either in the short-term managing their daily energy reserve or in the long-term making future plans. The theory shows how factors like enabling technologies, capital human, social, psychological resources , and compatibility with daily practices facilitated a sense of being in control for our participants.
Moreover, we show how over-ambitious or bad design e. Visualization recommender systems aim to lower the barrier to exploring basic visualizations by automatically generating results for analysts to search and select, rather than manually specify. Here, we demonstrate a novel machine learning-based approach to visualization recommendation that learns visualization design choices from a large corpus of datasets and associated visualizations.